Abstract. In connection with the aggravation of the political and economic situation in France, there is a sharp change in its political vocabulary. The report sets the task of studying the semantic structure of the meaning of the phrase “gilets jaunes” taking into account its ideologization and determining the degree of its stability and mastery of the national language. For this purpose, we use component analysis with elements of stereotypic analysis and contextual analysis with elements of sociolinguistic analysis. As a result of the metonymic transfer of synecdoche, according to a productive model such as les cols blancs, les talons rouges, les chemises noires, the free phrase es gilets jaunes becomes stable, in whose semantic structure color designation plays a symbolic role. The symbolism of the coloronim “jaune” is ambivalent: since ancient times, yellow has been associated with sunlight, gold, honey and had a positive connotation, however, in the Middle Ages negative connotations are manifested in the association of yellow with the color of bile, pus, urine, and, consequently, with the color of the disease, suffering, betrayal, etc. In modern French, the “yellow” enantiosemy is illustrated by two examples: the positively connotated phrase le maillot jaune (the yellow T-shirt is the winner of the Tour de France bicycle race) and the negatively connotated phrase la carte jaune (the yellow card is a warning sign of a violation of the rules). In a society divided ideologically, there
cannot be any consensus on “ideological” words. Therefore, the phrase gilets jaunes has two ideological types: positive and negative. In the semantic structure of both types of “gilet jaune”, 3 common attributes can be distinguished: 1) the name of the clothes – S1 “face”; 2) “yellow” – S2 “protester”. 3) S3 – “belonging to the middle class”. In the positively connotated type of meaning, the ideological attribute S1 is highlighted – “requiring social justice”. In the negative type of value, the following semes are distinguished: Si2 “anti-ecological”, because the outrage was caused by the so-called “environmental tax” on gasoline; Si3 “anarchical”, because les k-way noirs, les black-bloc – anarchists joined the movement; Si4 – “racial” because les chemises brunes joined the movement of the yellow vests. The inclusion in the semantic structure of the meaning of ideological components, i.e. components that cause a different ideological assessment, we call ideologization. Sustainability and a high degree of mastery of the national language of this phrase is indicated by the frequency of its use, the presence of singular and plural forms, the presence of masculine and feminine gender (un gilet jaune-une gilet jaune), and the capacity for word formation (giletjauniser, giletjaunisation, giletjaunien).
Keywords: semantics, ideologization, coloronim, les gilets jaunes
Maria V. Arsentieva
Saint-Petersburg State University Saint-Petersburg, Russia
ORCID id: С-8875-2016
Arsentieva, M.V. 1994. About the influence of ideology on the semantics of linguistic units (the name of a person in relation to religious faith in the French language of the 18th century). Bulletin of St. Petersburg University 1(2): 127-131. Borodulina, N.Yu., Makeeva, M.N., Glivenkova, O.A. 2019. Color holds a meaning vs color does not hold a meaning (symbolism of yellow color in the representation of social movements in Europe).
Philological sciences. Questions of theory and practice 12 (4): 228-232. Derzhavin, K.N. 1927.The struggle of classes and parties in the language of the Great French Revolution. Language and Literature 2(1): 1-62. Kryuchkova, T. B. 1984. To the question of the relationship between language and ideology. In Modern ideological struggle and language problems. Science, Moscow, pp. 61-93. Perestoronina, I.L., Eremina, M.V. 2019. Functions of headings containing the phrase “gilets jaunes” Problems of RomanoGermanic Philology. Pedagogy, and Methods of Teaching Foreign Languages 15: 54-58. Putilina, N.V. 2019. The functioning of semantic fields in the socio-political and sociocultural media context of the “yellow vests” movement in France (based on articles from the Le Monde newspaper. In Stages of the development of Romance languages: from the “language of live communication to the” national language”. Interuniversity collected volume of scientific papers. Responsible editor I.V. Skuratov, Moscow, pp.160-167. Sternin, I.A. 1985. Associative experiment and analysis of the structure of lexical meaning. In Text and culture: general and particular problems. Institute of Linguistics, Moscow, pp. 77-84. Suzdaltseva, V.N. 2014. Symbolism of color and the functioning of color designations in mass media political discourse. Bulletin of Moscow University, Series 10(1): pp. 80-95. Chekalina, E.M. 1991. The language of modern French press. Publishing House of the Leningrad University, Leningrad, 167 pp. Gilets jaunes: un assaut contre la société. Lundimatinpapier #4, 2019. l’Imprimerie Corlet, Condé-en-Normandie, 223 pp. Kripke, S. 1980. Naming and necessity. Harward University Pres, Cambridge, 184 pp.