Abstract. The objective of the paper is to build and describe a competence-based model of simultaneous interpreting (SI). To achieve this objective we use descriptive, comparative and interpreting modelling methods. The text is interpreted under an acute shortage of time, with the interpreter’s simultaneous talking and listening. The competence-based SI model includes three big components related to language and conceptual translator’s thesauri or his/her mental lexicon. The first component is communicative competence related to the language thesaurus. It is one of the core competences for all translation modes, but in SI it should be developed at a very high level. Obviously, there is a trend both in Russia and Europe to train simultaneous interpreters at Master degree programmes, with the communicative competence at C1 or C2 levels, though it has not always been the case. Of course, its acquisition continues in the process of studies at the Master Degree programme, as there is always room for improvement. The second component of the translator/interpreter’s competence is specialized or technological competence (sub-competence), which presents a set of key interpreting skills that manifest themselves in a special and unique way in SI, as they are based on the interpreter’s ability to resort to three most important SI cognitive mechanisms: inferencing, probabilistic forecasting and anticipation, and compression. Their first most detailed description was made by G. Chernov (Chernov G., 1987) in the seventies-eighties of XX century. We continue their study through a perspective of the interpretative theory of translation (theorie du sens developed by M. Lederer (2003) and D. Seleskovitch (1998)) applied to the SI teaching methods. The ability to make inferencing and anticipation depends on the third component of SI competence model – the knowledge of extralinguistic information. It includes the knowledge of culture, world in general and specific subject areas. This competence needs to be developed not only in the course of formal training. An insufficient number of contact hours means that students should be motivated to enhance their encyclopedic knowledge in the course of their autonomous work. Life-long learning for an interpreter is a must rather than an option.
Keywords: simultaneous interpreting, competences, inferencing, probabilistic forecasting and anticipation, compression
Marina E. Korovkina
Moscow State University for International Relations (MGIMO-University) Ministry of Foreign Affairs Moscow, Russia
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